June, Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/ Status of this Memo. This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the. Protocol for transfer of various data formats between server and client. – Plaintext . – Hypertext. – Images. – Video. – Sound. ▫ Meta-information also transferred. T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, H. Frystyk: Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/ RFC than the HTML version, the PDF version might have a slightly.
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HTTP. ▫ Hypertext Transfer Protocol. ▫ used in the WWW. ▫ protocol used for communication between web browsers and web servers. ▫ client-server paradigm . The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Research Paper. Available online at: ciulamuhabal.ml An Overview of World Wide Web Protocol (Hypertext Transfer. Protocol and Hypertext Transfer Protocol .
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POST method overcomes these drawbacks. If POST request method is used, the query string will be sent in the body of the request message, where the amount is not limited. The request headers Content-Type and Content-Length are used to notify the server the type and the length of the query string. POST method will be discussed later. Suppose the user enters "Peter Lee" as the username, "" as password; and clicks the submit button.
You should never use send your password without proper encryption.
Hostname: The DNS domain name e. Port: The TCP port number that the server is listening for incoming requests from the clients. Path-and-file-name: The name and location of the requested resource, under the server document base directory.
URL rewriting for session management, e. POST vs GET for Submitting Form Data As mentioned in the previous section, POST request has the following advantage compared with the GET request in sending the query string: The amount of data that can be posted is unlimited, as they are kept in the request body, which is often sent to the server in a separate data stream.
The query string is not shown on the address box of the browser. Hence, sending password using a POST request is absolutely not secure. When the user clicks the submit button, the browser send the form data and the content of the selected file s. The original local file name could be supplied as a "filename" parameter, or in the "Content-Disposition: form-data" header.
Read " Uploading Files in Servlet 3. This is often used to make a connection through a proxy. Extension methods also error codes and headers can be defined to extend the functionality of the HTTP protocol.
A client can use additional request headers such as Accept, Accept-Language, Accept-Charset, Accept-Encoding to tell the server what it can handle or which content it prefers.
If the server possesses multiple versions of the same document in different format, it will return the format that the client prefers. This process is called content negotiation. For example, file extensions ". When a file is returned to the client, the server has to put up a Content-Type response header to inform the client the media type of the data. If the server has 2 formats of the "logo": "logo. For Example: AddLanguage en.
If the server has "test. Note that "Options All" directive does not include "MultiViews" option.
That is, you have to explicitly turn on MultiViews. The directive LanguagePriority can be used to specify the language preference in case of a tie during content negotiation or if the client does not express a preference.
Accept-Charset: charset-1, charset-2, Similarly, the AddCharset directive is used to associate the file extension with the character set. The common encoding schemes are: "x-gzip. Similarly, the AddEncoding directive is used to associate the file extension with the an encoding scheme. For example: AddEncoding x-compress. Z AddEncoding x-gzip.
That is, each TCP connection services only one request.
If you download a page containing 5 inline images, the browser has to establish TCP connection 6 times to the same server. The client can negotiate with the server and ask the server not to close the connection after delivering the response, so that another request can be sent through the same connection.
This is known as persistent connection or keep-alive connection. Persistent connections greatly enhance the efficiency of the network. To ask for persistent connection, the client must include a request header "Connection: Keep-alive" in the request message to negotiate with the server.
The client do not have to sent the "Connection: Keep-alive" header. Instead, the client may wish to send the header "Connection: Close" to ask the server to close the connection after delivering the response. Persistent connection is extremely useful for web pages with many small inline images and other associated data, as all these can be downloaded using the same connection.
The benefits for persistent connection are: CPU time and resource saving in opening and closing TCP connection in client, proxy, gateways, and the origin server.
Request can be "pipelined". That is, a client can make several requests without waiting for each response, so as to use the network more efficiently.
In Apache HTTP server, several configuration directives are related to the persistent connections: The KeepAlive directive decides whether to support persistent connections. This takes value of either On or Off. You can set to 0 to allow unlimited number of requests.